Iran has long attempted to increase its influence over Kuwait due to its sizable Shia minority (approximately one-third of its population), extensive oil reserves, proximity to the Persian Gulf, and importance to American and Saudi Arabian security.
The strained relationship between Kuwait and Iran intensified during the Iran-Iraq War of the 1980s. In response to Kuwait shipping Iraqi oil, Iran began attacking Kuwaiti ships and refineries and engaging in terrorist attacks on Kuwaiti soil. In 1983, operatives of Iranian-backed Hezbollah and Al Da’wa targeted “the American and French embassies, the Kuwait airport, the grounds of the Raytheon Corporation, a Kuwait National Petroleum Company oil rig, and a government-owned power station” in coordinated suicide bombings which killed six people and wounded another ninety. Consequently, Kuwait imprisoned 17 people for their involvement in these attacks, including several members of Hezbollah.
In order to pressure Kuwait to release these 17 prisoners, known as the “Kuwait 17,” Iran directed Hezbollah to engage in a campaign of terrorism and kidnappings throughout the Middle East. In 1984, Kuwait Airways Flight 221 was hijacked on its way to Pakistan and diverted to Tehran. Although Iran eventually arrested the hijackers, the perpetrators murdered two employees of USAID, were never tried in Iranian court, and were permitted to leave the country. The next year, Hezbollah attempted to assassinate the Emir of Kuwait by driving a bomb-laden vehicle into the leader’s motorcade.
More recently, Kuwait has uncovered Iranian covert operations designed to undermine American-Kuwaiti military cooperation and enflame sectarian tensions among Kuwait’s Shia minority. In April 2011, the Kuwaiti Foreign Minister reported the discovery of an Iranian spy cell which had operated in Kuwait since the U.S. invaded Iraq in 2003. The cell “monitored the U.S. military presence and possessed explosives to bomb ‘strategic’ facilities” in addition to lists of “names of officers” and “extremely sensitive information.” This announcement followed the March sentencing of two Iranians and one Kuwaiti for spying on behalf of Iran and the coincided with the expulsion of several Iranian diplomats from Kuwait.