"Despite the international sanctions that have choked off much of Iran's foreign trade, many German companies have continued to do business here-legally-in recent years. Now those companies are likely to be among the first to benefit from the country's expected reopening, after a U.S.-led deal in July to ease the sanctions in exchange for curbs on Iran's nuclear program. As of last year, more than 75 German companies had operations in Iran, according to the Tehran-based German-Iranian Chamber of Industry and Commerce. Most of them were small, family-owned businesses that make specialty products not directly covered by the sanctions, often for the health-care, construction or automotive markets... 'We never really left the country,' said Mark Pace, the chief executive and co-owner of Dentaurum GmbH, which has done business in Iran for decades... 'No sanctions can last forever, and once they are lifted or relaxed, then we are already there, while others have to look for partners and start from the very beginning,' said Dentaurum’s Mr. Pace." (Wall Street Journal, "Small German Firms Hold Edge in Iran," 11/29/15)